Diabetes medication – oral hypoglycaemics

BAGS

  • Biguanides
    • e.g. metformin – reduces insulin resistance, S/E GI upset, lactic acidosis
  • Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
    • e.g. acarbose – inhibits carbohydrate digestion so reduces intestinal glucose reabsorption, S/E bloating, diarrhoea
  • Glitazones (thiazolidinediones)
    • e.g. pioglitazone, risoglitazone – insulin-sensitising agents causing transcription of Glut-1 receptors, S/E hepatotoxicity
  • Sulphonylureas
    • e.g. gliclazide, tolbutamine – stimulate insulin production from pancreatic beta-cells, S/E weight gain and hypoglycaemia

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