Vitamin-k dependent clotting factors

1972 (in reverse order):

  • II (2)
  • VII (7)
  • IX (9)
  • X (10)

These are glutamic acid (Gla) residues and are produces as inactive proteins.  Vitamin K is required as a co-factor to activate these proteins and subsequently aid the clotting process.  Warfarin is known as a ‘vitamin K antagonist’ so reduces the availability of vitamin K to form these clotting factors, hence increasing clotting time and’thinning the blood’.


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