Archive for the ‘Biochemsitry & Genetics’ Category

Appetite

April 17, 2015

CLINGS

  • Cholecystokinin
  • Leptin
  • Inhibit appetite
  • Neuropeptide Y
  • Ghrelin
  • Stimulate appetite
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Genetic testing

March 2, 2015

Southerners Do Not Rouse White People

  • Southern blot – detects DNA
  • Northern blot – detects RNA
  • Western blot – detects Protein

Hyperkalaemia causes

July 12, 2012

7 A‘s

  • Artifact
  • Aldosterone antagonist
  • Addison’s disease
  • Acidosis
  • ACE inhibitors
  • Angiotensin receptor blocker
  • Anti-inflammatory

Treatment (if >7mmol/L) is 10mL of 10% calcium gluconate IV over 1 minute; to stabilise the action potential of the cell membrane.

High anion gap metabolic acidosis causes

January 31, 2012

MUDPILES

  • Methanol
  • Uraemia
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Propylene glycol
  • Isoniazid / Infection
  • Lactic acidosis
  • Ethylene glycol
  • Salicylates

Hypokalaemia causes

November 17, 2011

Many Diuretics Generate Reversible Hypokalaemia

  • Mineralocorticoids e.g. fludrocortisone, exogenous
  • Diuretics
  • Gastrointestinal loss – vomiting, diarrhoea
  • Redistribution – insulin, beta2 agonists, alkalosis
  • Hyperaldosteronism

Hyponatraemia causes

November 17, 2011

Adding Sid’s Hair Dye Creates Seriously Low Volume

  • Addison’s disease
  • SIADH
  • Hypothyroid
  • Diuretics (especially thiazides)
  • Carbamazepine
  • SSRIs
  • Low Volume – postural drop in BP

Hypernatraemia causes

April 9, 2011

AS GOLD

  • Aldosteronism (primary) – would expect raised BP, low K+ and alkalosis (raised HCO3-)
  • Steroid excess (e.g. Cushing’s syndrome)
  • Gain of IV fluid (e.g. excess IV saline)
  • Osmotic diuresis – diabetes mellitus
  • Loss of fluid without water replacement (e.g. diarrhoea, vomiting, burns)
  • Diabetes insipidus – suspect in head injury, pituitary surgery

Hypocalcaemia features

March 19, 2011

SPASMODIC (meaning a sudden, involuntary muscle contraction)

  • Spasms (e.g. Trousseau’s sign)
  • Paraesthesiae (perioral, hands and feet) / Prolonged QTc interval
  • Anxious, irritable, irrational
  • Seizures
  • Muscle tone increase in smooth muscle – colic, wheeze dysphagia
  • Orientation impaired and confusion
  • Dermatitis
  • Impetigo herpetiformis
  • Chvostek’s sign, Choreoathetosis, Cataract, Cardiomyopathy