Archive for the ‘Cardiovascular’ Category

ACE inhibitor contraindications

October 20, 2013

PARK

  • Pregnancy – teratogenic
  • Allergy
  • Renal artery stenosis (caution in renal failure especially if creatinine >200umol/L)
  • Kalaemia – hyperkalaemia, also hyponatraemia or hypotension/hypovolaemia
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Clubbing – cardiac causes

February 28, 2012

CIA (or cardIAC)

  • Congenital cyanotic heart disease
  • Infective endocarditis
  • Atrial myxoma

Antiarrhythmic medication – Vaughan William’s classification

January 22, 2012

Some Block Potassium Channels

  • Sodium (class I) e.g.:
    • Ia – quinidine
    • Ib – lignocaine/lidocaine
    • Ic – flecanide
  • Beta-blockers (class II) e.g. propranolol
  • Potassium (class III) e.g. amiodarone
  • Calcium (class IV) e.g. verapamil, diltiazem

Cardiac arrest reversible causes

January 15, 2012

4 H’s and 4 T’s

  • Hypoxia
  • Hypovolaemia
  • Hyper/hypokalaemia and other electrolyte disturbances e.g. magnesium imbalance
  • Hypothermia
  • Tension pneumothorax
  • Tamponade (cardiac)
  • Toxicity and Therapeutics
  • Thrombosis (coronary or pulmonary)

Aneurysm typical causes

December 24, 2011

ATTIC

  • Atheroma
  • Trauma
  • Takayasu’s aortitis (inflammation)
  • Infection e.g. mycotic aneurysm in endocarditis, syphilis
  • Connective tissue disorders e.g. Marfan’s syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos

Critical limb ischaemia surgery options

December 24, 2011

SAGA

  • Stent (intravascular)
  • Angioplasty (balloon)
  • Graft – bypass surgery
  • Amputation

Irregularly irregular pulse differential diagnosis

November 28, 2011

SEA

  • Sinus arrhythmia (especially in a young patient)
  • Ectopic beats
  • Atrial fibrillation

Heart failure immediate management

November 23, 2011

OMFG!

  • Oxygen (100% if no pre-existing lung disease)
  • Morphine e.g. diamorphine 2.5-5mg IV slowly
  • Furosemide 40-80mg IV slowly
  • GTN spray 2 puff sublingual

Rheumatic fever: Ducket-Jones diagnostic criteria

November 23, 2011

There must be evidence of streptococcal infection plus:

2 major or 1 major + 2 minor

Major criteria

CASES

  • Carditis – tachycardia, murmurs (mitral/aortic regurgitation), pericardial rub
  • Arthritis – migratory flitting polyarthritis, usually larger joints
  • Subcutaneous nodules – small, painless, mobile nodules on extensor surfaces
  • Erythema marginatum
  • Sydenham’s chorea

Minor criteria

FRAPP

  • Fever
  • Raised CRP/ESR
  • Arthralgia (unless arthritis is included in major criteria)
  • Prolonged PR interval (unless carditis included in major criteria)
  • Previous rheumatic fever

Infective endocarditis: valvular predisposing factors

November 23, 2011

Prosthetic Valves Really Predispose Endocarditis

  • Prosthetic valves
  • Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
  • Regurgitation (aortic or mitral)
  • Patent ductus arteriosus
  • Endocarditis in the past