Archive for the ‘Endocrinology’ Category

Goitre causes

June 14, 2012

Diffuse

Some People Have Goitres

  • Subacute e.g. de Quervain’s thyroiditis (painful)
  • Physiological
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
  • Graves’ disease

Nodular

Many Are Cancerous

  • Multinodular goitre
  • Adenoma
  • Carcinoma

Hypoglycaemia causes

December 12, 2011

In the non-diabetic: EXPLAIN

  • EXogenous medication e.g. insulin, oral hypoglycaemics, alcohol, aspirin overdose, IGF-1
  • Pituitary insufficiency
  • Liver failure
  • Addison’s disease
  • Islet cell tumours (e.g. insulinoma)
  • Non-pancreatic neoplasm e.g. fibrosarcoma

Precipitating factors in a diabetic: MINE

  • Missing a meal
  • Insulin overdose (accidental)
  • Non-accidental overdose
  • Exercise (increased activity)

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia classification

December 12, 2011

MEN-1: TAP3

  • Thyroid / Adrenal adenomas
  • Parathyroid hyperplasia
  • Pituitary adenoma
  • Pancreatic islet cell tumour

MEN-2a: 2PM

  • Parathyroid hyperplasia
  • Phaeochromocytoma
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma

MEN-2b: 2PM MN

  • Parathyroid hyperplasia
  • Phaeochromocytoma
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma
  • Marfanoid habitus
  • Neuromas (mucosal)

Diabetes complications

December 8, 2011

KNIVES (or KEVINS)

  • Kidney – nephropathy
  • Neuromuscular – peripheral neuropathy, mononeuritis, amyotrophy
  • Infective – UTIs, TB
  • Vascular – coronary/cerebrovascular/peripheral artery disease
  • Eye – cataracts, retinopathy
  • Skin – lipohypertrophy/lipoatrophy, necrobiosis lipoidica

Diabetes medication – oral hypoglycaemics

December 8, 2011

BAGS

  • Biguanides
    • e.g. metformin – reduces insulin resistance, S/E GI upset, lactic acidosis
  • Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
    • e.g. acarbose – inhibits carbohydrate digestion so reduces intestinal glucose reabsorption, S/E bloating, diarrhoea
  • Glitazones (thiazolidinediones)
    • e.g. pioglitazone, risoglitazone – insulin-sensitising agents causing transcription of Glut-1 receptors, S/E hepatotoxicity
  • Sulphonylureas
    • e.g. gliclazide, tolbutamine – stimulate insulin production from pancreatic beta-cells, S/E weight gain and hypoglycaemia

Thyroid carcinoma histological types

June 17, 2011

Please Feed My Alligator

In order from most to least common and least to most aggressive.

  • Papillary (80% of total)
  • Follicular (10%)
  • Medullary (5%)
  • Anaplastic (3%)

Layers of the adrenal cortex and the hormones produced

April 1, 2011

Get My Freakin’ Gun Right Away

Glomerulosa : Mineralocorticoids (e.g. aldosterone)
Fasciculata : Glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol)
Reticularis : Androgens (sex hormones)

(www.kmle.co.kr)

Steroid side effects

March 28, 2011

CUSHINGOID

  • Cataracts
  • Ulcers
  • Skin: striae, thinning, bruising
  • Hypertension/ Hirsutism/ Hyperglycemia
  • Infections
  • Necrosis, avascular necrosis of the femoral head
  • Glycosuria
  • Osteoporosis, obesity
  • Immunosuppression
  • Diabetes