Archive for the ‘Haematology’ Category

Contraindications to warfarin with AF

April 14, 2013

AF Bleeds Horrendously

  • Adherence poor
  • Falls history/risk
  • Bleeding/coagulation disorders
  • Hypertension (+ warfarin = brain haemorrhage)

Vitamin-k dependent clotting factors

May 21, 2012

1972 (in reverse order):

  • II (2)
  • VII (7)
  • IX (9)
  • X (10)

These are glutamic acid (Gla) residues and are produces as inactive proteins.  Vitamin K is required as a co-factor to activate these proteins and subsequently aid the clotting process.  Warfarin is known as a ‘vitamin K antagonist’ so reduces the availability of vitamin K to form these clotting factors, hence increasing clotting time and’thinning the blood’.

Haematopoesis

May 20, 2012

Click thumbnail for larger image (wikipedia)

Immediate complications of blood transfusions

January 5, 2012

BAFTA

  • Bacterial contamination
  • Anaphylaxis / Allergic reaction
  • Fluid overload
  • Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)
  • ARDS (this is basically TRALI due to anti-leukocyte antibodies from donor plasma)

Microcytic anaemia causes

November 24, 2011

FAST

  • Fe (iron) deficiency
  • Anaemia of chronic disease (can also cause normocytic anaemia)
  • Sideroblastic anaemia
  • Thalassaemia

Haemolytic anaemia haematological features

October 29, 2011

BLUHR

  • Biliburin, unconjugated (INCREASE)
  • Lactate dehydrogenase (INCREASE)
  • Urinary urobilinogen (INCREASE)
  • Haptoglobin (DECREASE)
  • Reticulocytosis and polychromasia

Splenomegaly causes

June 9, 2011

CHINA

  • Congestion – portal hypertension
  • Haematological – haemolytic anaemia, sickle cell disease
  • Infection – malaria, EBV, CMV, HIV
  • Neoplasm – CML, myelofibrosis, lymphoma
  • Autoimmune – RA, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis

Causes of Massive splenomegaly (three M’s):

  • chronic Myeloid leukaemia
  • Myelofibrosis
  • Malaria

Lymphoma treatment

May 16, 2011

Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

ABVD

  • Adriamycin
  • Bleomycin
  • Vinblastine
  • Dacarbazine

Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

R-CHOP

  • Rituximab
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Hydroxydaunorubicin
  • Oncovin (Vincristine)
  • Prednisolone

Haemoglobin conditions

March 18, 2011

AOCD = anaemia of chronic disease

 

Fe def = iron deficiency

White blood cells

March 3, 2011

Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas

White blood cells (% of all WBCs)

  • Neutrophils (65%)
  • Lymphocytes (25%)
  • Monocytes (6%)
  • Eosinophils (3%)
  • Basophils (1%)

Red blood cells and platelets

Erythrocytes (RBCs): 4.8 million/uL (F), 5.4 million/uL (M); 7-8um; live for ~120 days

Thrombocytes (platelets): 150,000 – 400,000/uL; 2-4um; live for ~5-9 days