Archive for the ‘Immunology’ Category

TORCH infections

March 5, 2012

Perinatal infections passed from mother to child.

TORCH

  • Toxoplasmosis / Toxoplasma gondii
  • Other infections e.g. HIV, coxsackie virus, syphilis, varicella-zoster virus
  • Rubella
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Herpes simplex virus-2
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Pyelonephritis common bacteria

February 1, 2012

PESK

  • Proteus / Pseudomonas
  • Escherichia coli
  • Serratia
  • Klebsiella

 

Chemotherapy side-effects

January 7, 2012

MAIN

  • Myelosuppression (bone marrow suppression)
  • Alopecia
  • Infection risk increased
  • Nausea

HIV transmission methods

December 23, 2011

HIV TRANSmission

  • Homosexual/heterosexual intercourse (increased risk in gays)
  • Intravenous drug abuse
  • Vertical i.e. mother-to-child transmission
  • TRANSfusions of blood products

Common cold (acute coryza) causative agents

October 18, 2011

PRIMArk viruses

  • Parainfluenza
  • Rhinoviruses / Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
  • Influenza
  • Myxovirus, paramyxovirus
  • Adenovirus

Inflammation signs

September 25, 2011

Celsus’ cardinal signs of inflammation:

Redness That Doesn’t Cease!

  • Rubor (redness and hyperaemia)
  • Tumor (swelling)
  • Dolor (pain)
  • Calor (warmth)
(wikipedia)

CREST syndrome

June 28, 2011

The cutaneous form of systemic scleroderma.

The five features are: CREST

  • Calcinosis
  • Raynaud’s phenomenon
  • Esophageal dysmotility
  • Sclerodactyly
  • Telangectasia
Calcinosis – calcium deposits in tissue.  Most common form is dystrophic calcification and can be due to any soft tissue damage
Raynaud’s phenomenon – vasospasm of the fingers/toes
Sclerodactyly – thickening and tightness of skin around fingers or toes

Pyrexia of unknown origin causes

April 8, 2011

Infections Can Make Undergraduates Die

  • Infection (20-40%)
    • Tuberculosis
    • Infective endocarditis
    • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
    • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • Connective tissue disorders (20%)
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    • Adult-onset Still’s disease
    • Temporal arteritis
  • Malignancy (10-20%)
    • Lymphoma
    • Leukaemia
    • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Undiagnosed (20%)
  • Drugs (e.g. phenytoin) (Rare)

* Relative percentages in brackets

Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) is a fever > 3 weeks with no cause found despite 7 days in hospital with investigations.

Immunoglobulin classes

April 4, 2011

GAMED

  • IgG
  • IgA
  • IgM
  • IgE
  • IgD
  • IgM – produced and respond iMmediately
  • IgG – produces Greater, secondary effect after a decrease in IgM.

Sepsis management

March 13, 2011

OVERS

  • Oxygen administration / airway support, raise foot of bed
  • Volume resuscitation – crystalloid infusion to raise BP
  • Early antibiotic administration
  • Rapid source of identification and control
  • Support major organ dysfunction/failure.