Archive for the ‘Paediatrics’ Category

Cerebral palsy types

March 10, 2012

SADAM

  • Spastic – increased tone
  • Athetoid / Dyskinetic – involuntary and uncontrolled movements
  • Ataxic – cerebellar damage difficulty with fine motor skills and balance
  • Mixed
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TORCH infections

March 5, 2012

Perinatal infections passed from mother to child.

TORCH

  • Toxoplasmosis / Toxoplasma gondii
  • Other infections e.g. HIV, coxsackie virus, syphilis, varicella-zoster virus
  • Rubella
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Herpes simplex virus-2

Sturge-Weber symptoms

February 19, 2012

STURGE

  • Seizures
  • Trigeminal port-wine stain
  • Unilateral weakness (often opposite side to stain)
  • Retardation (mental) in some patients
  • Glaucoma
  • Eye problems e.g. buphthalmos

Stridor causes

February 10, 2012

Stridor is A Very WELSH Condition

  • Acute epiglotitis (acute stridor)
  • Vocal cord paralysis (chronic stridor)
  • Web, laryngeal (chronic)
  • External compression e.g. vascular ring (chronic)
  • Laryngomalacia (chronic)
  • Subglottic stenosis (chronic)
  • Hypocalcaemia (chronic)
  • Croup (acute)

Asthma in paediatric history

November 21, 2011

HINDERS growth

  • Hospital admissions/ITU
  • Interference with school/work/sleep
  • Nocturnal/morning cough
  • Drugs – what medications and how often they are used
  • Eczema/hay fever/allergens
  • Record – PEFR diary
  • Symptoms e.g. wheeze, breathlessness

DiGeorge syndrome symptoms

November 2, 2011

CATCH-22

  • Cardiac abnormalities (esp. tetralogy of Fallot)
  • Abnormal facies
  • Thymic aplasia
  • Cleft palate
  • Hypocalcaemia
  • 22 – deletion of one copy of chromosome 22q11.2

Congenital dyslocation of the hips – risk factors

October 30, 2011

Big Feet Get Noticed

  • Breech delivery
  • Family history positive*
  • Girls > Boys
  • Neuromuscular and joint problems (e.g. spina bifida, talipes equinovarus)
* Could also use H for history to make Big Hips Get Noticed

Pyloric stenosis features

October 17, 2011

The three P‘s

  • Palpable mass
  • Peristalsis visible
  • Projectile vomiting (3-7 weeks after birth)

Apgar score

May 22, 2011

APGAR

  • Appearance
    • 0 = pink
    • 1 = blue limbs
    • 2 = blue all over
  • Pulse
    • 0 = 0
    • 1 = <100
    • 2 = >100
  • Grimace
    • 0 = no response to stimulant
    • 1 = feeble response, irregular
    • 2 = crying
  • Activity (tone)
    • 0 = flaccid
    • 1 = reduced, limb flexion
    • 2 = flexed arms resisting extension, active movement
  • Respiration
    • 0 = absent
    • 1 = weak, irregular
    • 2 = crying

Features of Down’s syndrome

March 2, 2011

My CHILD HAS a PROBLEM

  • Congenital heart disease / Cataracts
  • Hypotonia / Hyperthyroidism
  • Incure 5th finger / Increased gap between 1st and 2nd toes
  • Leukaemia (risk x2) / Lung problems
  • Duodenal atresia / Delayed development
  • Hirshsprung’s disease / Hearing loss
  • Alzheimer’s disease / Alantoaxial instability
  • Short neck / Squint
  • Protruding tongue / Palmar crease
  • Roung face / Rolling eye (nystagmus)
  • Oblique eye fissure / Occiput flat
  • Behavioural difficulties
  • Low nasal bridge / Language problem
  • Epicanthic fold / Ear folded
  • Mental retardation / Myoclonus

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