Archive for the ‘Renal & Genitourinary’ Category

Sexual history essential elements

February 29, 2012

The 5 P‘s

  • Partners – overall and recently
  • Practices e.g. vaginal, anal, oral sex
  • Protection e.g. condoms
  • Pregnancy – desire to become pregnant or prevention (e.g. combined oral contraceptive)
  • Past history of sexually transmitted infections

Pyelonephritis common bacteria

February 1, 2012

PESK

  • Proteus / Pseudomonas
  • Escherichia coli
  • Serratia
  • Klebsiella

 

Nephritic syndrome features

November 7, 2011

PHARAOH

  • Proteinuria
  • Haematuria
  • Azotaemia (elevated blood nitrogen levels)
  • Red blood cell casts
  • Anti-streptolysin O titres (ASOT) if post-streptococcal infection
  • Oliguria (output <0.5ml/kg/hour)
  • Hypertension

Renal dialysis indications

June 27, 2011

AEIOU

  • Acidosis (severe)
  • Electrolyte abnormalities (e.g. hyperkalaemia)
  • Intoxication (e.g. removal of genatmicin, lithium, aspirin overdose) *
  • Oedema (pulmonary)
  • Uraemia symptoms (e.g. confusion, lethargy, coma)

* Dialysable drugs: SLIME

  • Salicylic acid
  • Lithium
  • Isopropanol
  • Magnesium-containing laxatives
  • Ethylene glycol

Detecting urinary outflow obstruction

March 10, 2011

DISH UP

  • Dribbling (Does the flow stop and start? Does it continue dribbling after you finish?)
  • Incontinence (Do you ever pass water when you don’t want to?)
  • Strangury (Is your stream painful/drop by drop?)
  • Hesitancy (Is there every a delay before you start?)
  • Urgency (On feeling an urge to pass water, do you have to go at once?)
  • Poor stream (Have you noticed your stream getting weaker?)