Archive for the ‘Rheumatology’ Category

Rheumatoid arthritis x-ray findings

January 9, 2012

SOLD

  • Swelling of soft tissues
  • Osteopenia (juxta-articular)
  • Loss of joint space
  • Deformity of the joint
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Antiphospholipid syndrome complications

December 1, 2011

CLOTs

  • Coagulation defect
  • Livedo reticularis
  • Obstetric (recurrent miscarriage)
  • Thrombocytopaenia

Colles’ fracture

November 21, 2011

COLLES

  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Obvious deformity
  • Long healing time
  • Lack of healing
  • Extensor pollicis longus rupture
  • Sympathetic dystrophy

Painful leg – common causes

November 7, 2011

ACDC

  • Arthritis
  • Cellulitis
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Compression of nerve root e.g. sciatica

Reactive arthritis symptoms

September 21, 2011

Can’t see, can’t pee and can’t limb a tree

  • Conjunctivitis
  • Urethritis
  • Arthritis
99% specific

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) diagnostic criteria

September 21, 2011

MD SOAP BRAIN

  • Malar rash – butterfly rash, sparing of nasolabial folds
  • Discoid rash – basement membrane involved, may cause scarring
  • Serositis – pleuritis/pericarditis
  • Oral ulcers
  • Antinuclear antibody (ANA) – very sensitive test
  • Photosensitivity – skin rash to sunlight
  • Blood – haemolytic anaemia, leukopaenia, thrombocytopaenia
  • Renal disorder – proteinuria and cell casts
  • Arthritis – symmetrical, involving 2+ small or large peripheral joints
  • Immunological disorder – anti-dsDNA
  • Neurological – seizures, psychosis
American College of Rheumatology, 1997: requires 4 out of 11

Osteoporosis risk factors

February 24, 2011

SHATTERED Family

  • Steroid use >5mg/day prednisolone
  • Hyperthyroidism; hyperparathyroidism, hypercalciuria
  • Alcohol and tobacco use
  • Thin (BMI <22)
  • Testosterone low (e.g. anti androgen in cancer of prostate)
  • Early menopause
  • Renal or liver failure
  • Erosive/inflammatory bone disease (e.g. RA or myeloma)
  • Dietary Ca low/malabsorption or Diabetes mellitus type 1
  • Family history

Osteoarthritis radiological findings

February 19, 2011

LOSS

  • Loss of joint space
  • Osteophyte formation
  • Subchondral sclerosis
  • Subchondral cysts